AIX for PS/2 X Windows User's Guide

                                                         AIX Operating System
                                                            IBM AIX X-Windows
                                                                 User's Guide
                                       1.0 Chapter 1.  Getting Started with X-Windows

   1.1 CONTENTS
   1.2 About This Chapter
   1.3 Starting X-Windows
      1.3.1 Additional Information
      1.3.2 Menu Selection
   1.4 Moving a Window
   1.5 Resizing a Window
   1.6 Opening a Clock Window
   1.7 Hiding and Showing a Window
   1.8 Opening an AIX Shell Window
   1.9 Circulating a Window
   1.10 Canceling a Window
   1.11 Stopping the Server
   1.12 Using Other Functions

1.2 About This Chapter

   X-Windows is a tool designed to help enhance the usability of the overall application processing environment.  X-Windows provides facilities that can help you work with existing application programs as well as design and implement new applications.

   X-Windows permits multiple application processes to operate within multiple windows displayed on a virtual terminal.  You can manage windows directly or with application programs.  You can hide windows partially or completely.  You can also update partially hidden and completely hidden windows.

   Each window can have a specific character set (font) associated with it. Additionally, each window can have its own keyboard mapping.  This capability permits character sets available on the IBM RT, PS/2, or the S/370 systems (with some exceptions) to be connected to a specific window. Keyboard mapping coupled with the capability to access all system characters provides National Language Support (NLS).

   X-Windows provides many popular window management functions, including opening, moving, resizing, or circulating a window.

   X-Windows provides the capability to manage local and remote displays. Remote display management can be accomplished with other RT, PS/2, and S/370 systems connected through TCP/IP.

   X-Windows also provides a library of C language functions and macros and FORTRAN functions and subroutines to interface clients with servers. Refer to IBM AIX X-Windows Programmer's Reference for more information on these functions.  Through various commands and calls, end users or application programs can acquire the services of the windowing functions.

 This chapter shows you how to use the following X-Windows functions:

      Starting X-Windows
      Moving and resizing a window
      Opening a clock window
      Hiding and showing a window
      Opening an AIX shell window
      Circulating a window
      Canceling a window
      Stopping the server.

1.3 Starting X-Windows

   The steps in the following box tell you how to start X-Windows. Be sure that X-Windows is installed.  (For installation instructions, refer to Appendix A, "Installing AIX X-Windows.")

+--- Starting X-Windows -------------------------------------------------+
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 1.  Log in to your system.                                             ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 2.  At the shell prompt, type:                                         ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦       xinit                                                            ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦     Press Enter.                                                       ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 3.  Run programs in the AIX Shell or use the window manager menu to    ¦
¦     manipulate windows.                                                ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+

1.3.1 Additional Information

   1.  If you do not know how to log in, refer to Using the AIX Operating System.

       If you want X-Windows to start each time you log in, see "Logging into AIX X-Windows Automatically" in topic 3.4.

   2.  Next to the shell prompt, type the command xinit.  The xinit command does three things:

       a.  Starts the X Server, except on the S/370 system, using the X command.  This controls the 
            input and output of X-Windows.
       b.  Opens the window manager menu in the upper right corner of the screen using the aixwm 
            command.
       c.  Opens the initial X-Windows AIX Shell window using the aixterm command.

       Note:  For more info on these commands, see Chapter 2, "AIX X-Windows Commands."

   3.  After executing xinit, you see a screen similar to this:

   PICTURE 1

   Note:  To type in a window, the mouse cursor must be in that window.

   An AIX Shell window functions as a terminal.  The mouse cursor must be in the AIX Shell window to type in it.  You can run programs just as you would on any other terminal connected to your system.  For example, type li and press Enter to see the contents of your current directory.

1.3.2 Menu Selection

   aixwm provides two ways to make menu selections using the mouse.  To choose an item in a menu, do one of the following:

      Use the mouse to move the cursor to the desired item, and then click any button on the mouse.
            -OR-
      Press and hold a button on the mouse while you move the cursor to the desired item.  Then release the button.

   aixwm highlights your selection.

   For fast selection, refer to "Button/Key Selection" and "Pop-up Button Selection" in topic 2.6.2.

1.4 Moving a Window

   You can use the window manager to manipulate windows.  Use Reset to move a window.  For example, you may want the AIX Shell window in a different place.  When you apply Move to a window, a rubber-band outline is moved with the mouse.  The rubber-band outline is the outline that is displayed in the window.  Use the following steps to move a window:

+--- Moving a Window ----------------------------------------------------+
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 1.  Select Reset from the window manager menu.                         ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 2.  Use the mouse to move the cursor inside the AIX Shell window.      ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 3.  Press and hold the same button you used in Step 1.  A rubber-band  ¦
¦     outline is displayed.                                              ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 4.  Use the mouse to move the rubber-band outline while holding the    ¦
¦     button down on the mouse.                                          ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 5.  Release the button when the rubber-band outline is in the location ¦
¦     you desire.  The window is moved to fill the rubber-band outline.  ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+

   The following figure shows an example of an AIX Shell window and the rubber-band outline created by using the Move item in the window manager menu:

   PICTURE 2

1.5 Resizing a Window

   In addition to moving a window, you can also resize it.  Use Resize to resize a window by moving a corner or an edge.  When you apply Resize to a window, a rubber-band outline of the window is displayed.  Use the following steps to resize a window:

+--- Resizing a Window --------------------------------------------------+
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 1.  Select Resize from the window manager menu.                        ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 2.  Move the cursor to any corner or edge of the window that you want  ¦
¦     to resize.                                                         ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 3.  Press and hold the same mouse button you used in step 1.  A        ¦
¦     rubber-band outline of the window is displayed, and a box is       ¦
¦     displayed inside the window with the screen size in it.            ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 4.  Move the rubber-band outline while holding the button down on the  ¦
¦     mouse.  The numbers in the box change as you move the mouse to     ¦
¦     show the screen size in characters.                                ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 5.  Release the mouse button when you have the size you want.  The     ¦
¦     window is resized.                                                 ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Note:  You may need to restart some commands or programs after resizing a window.

   The following is an example of a window with a rubber-band outline which was created by using the Resize item in the window manager menu.  (The cursor shape changes when using Resize.)

   PICTURE 3

1.6 Opening a Clock Window

   Two kinds of X-Windows clocks are available from the Tools submenu:  the Analog Clock and the Digital Clock.  Use the following steps to open the Analog Clock window:

+--- Opening a Clock Window ---------------------------------------------+
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 1.  Select Tools from the window manager menu.                         ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 2.  Select Analog Clock from the Tools submenu.                        ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
¦ 3.  The Analog Clock window is opened in the lower right corner of the ¦
¦     display.                                                           ¦
¦                                                                        ¦
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+

   The following figure shows a clock similar to the analog clock:
 

   PICTURE 4
 
 

   To display a digital clock, follow the same steps as those for the analog clock, but select Digital Clock. The digital clock looks similar to this on your screen:

   PICTURE 5

1.7 Hiding and Showing a Window

   When you apply Hide/Show to a window, it makes the window into an icon window.  When you apply Hide/Show to an icon window, it makes the window reappear.  Programs or commands running in a window continue running when you use Hide/Show.  For example, if you are compiling a C language program in a window, you can hide the window and the program will continue compiling.  To use Hide/Show, use the following steps:

+--- Hiding and Showing a Window ---------------------------------------+
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ To hide a window:                                                     ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 1. Select Hide/Show in the window manager menu.                       ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 2. Move the cursor into the window you want to hide.                  ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 3. Click the same button you used in step 1.  The window is           ¦
¦    represented on your display as an icon window.                     ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ To show a window:                                                     ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 1. Select Hide/Show in the window manager menu.                       ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 2. Move the cursor into the icon window you want to show.             ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 3. Click the same button you used in step 1.  The icon window is      ¦
¦    changed into a window on your display.  The window is displayed at ¦
¦    its previous location on your display.                             ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Note:  An icon window can be moved to any place on the display just as any other window can be moved to any place on the display.

   The following is an example of an icon window: 

   PICTURE 6

1.8 Opening an AIX Shell Window

   To open an AIX Shell window, use the following steps:

+--- Opening an AIX Shell Window ---------------------------------------+
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 1.  Select Tools from the window manager menu.                        ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 2.  Select AIX Shell from the Tools submenu.                          ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 3.  An AIX Shell window is displayed.                                 ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 4.  Run programs in the AIX Shell window or use the window manager    ¦
¦     menu to manipulate the window.                                    ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

1.9 Circulating a Window

   Circulate causes the lowest window in a stack of overlapping windows to be raised.  If used successively, Circulate causes each window to be raised in turn.  If you think of windows as being stacked on top of each other, then imagine when you circulate windows, the lowest one is raised to the top.  If a window covers a large area of the display, there may be windows that you cannot see until you circulate them.  To circulate among the windows, use the following steps:

+--- Circulating Windows -----------------------------------------------+
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 1.  Select Circulate from the window manager menu.                    ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 2.  The lowest window is raised to the top.                           ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 3.  Repeat the first two steps to view all the windows in order.      ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

1.10 Canceling a Window

   When you select Cancel, aixwm disconnects the selected window from the X Server.  The window disappears from the display.  In most cases, commands or programs running in the window are also canceled.

   To cancel a window, use the following steps:

+--- Canceling a Window ------------------------------------------------+
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 1. Select Cancel from the window manager menu.                        ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 2. Move the cursor into the window you want to cancel.                ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ 3. Click the same button you used in step 1.  The window is canceled. ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
 

1.11 Stopping the Server

+--- Stopping the Server -----------------------------------------------+
¦                                                                       ¦
¦ Press Ctrl-Alt-Bksp to stop the X Server and return to the shell      ¦
¦ prompt.                                                               ¦
¦                                                                       ¦
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

   Note:  Stopping the server also kills the clients.

1.12 Using Other Functions

   X-Windows also provides the following functions:

   Copy and paste between terminal windows.  For more information, "The
    COPY, PASTE, and RE-EXECUTE Functions" in topic 2.5.1.

   Fast selection of window manager menu items.  For more information,
    see "Pop-up Button Selection" in topic 2.6.2.

   Change initial layout of screen.  For more information, see the xinit
    command on page 2.11.

   Use Set to set various keyboard and mouse options, display the window
    manager horizontally, reverse video, change available colors (on the
    RT only), and set the bell volume (on the RT only).  For more
    information, see "Set" in topic 2.6.4.

   Customize the window manager menu.  For more information, see
    "Modifying the Window Manager Tools Menu" in topic 3.5 and the aixwm
    command on page 2.6.

   Use a tablet as a locator device.  (AIX X-Windows supports the tablet
    on the RT only.)  The tablet puck buttons correspond to the mouse
    buttons as follows:
    -   button 1 is the left button
    -   button 2 is the middle button
    -   button 3 is the right button
    -   button 4 is not assigned.
 

   PICTURE 7

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